Prebiotics are a type of fiber that the human body cannot digest. They serve as food for probiotics, which are the living microorganisms, including bacteria and yeast. Both prebiotics and probiotics may support helpful bacteria and other organisms in the gut.

Prebiotics and probiotics both support the body in building and maintaining a healthy colony of bacteria and other microorganisms, which supports the gut and aids digestion.

These food components help promote beneficial bacteria by providing food and creating an environment where microorganisms can flourish.

  • Prebiotics are present in fiber-rich foods, such as fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.
  • Probiotics occur in many fermented foods, including yogurt, sauerkraut, and tempeh.

Research on the effects of probiotics is inconclusive, but it suggests that they may be beneficial in the following areas:

Digestive health
Numerous studies have found that probiotics may improve digestive health in some people. while using antibiotics reduced the risk of antibiotic-related diarrhea.

Mental health
A smaller body of research suggests that probiotics may improve mental health. Probiotics may alleviate the symptoms of depression. It is possible that probiotics have this effect because there is a link between gut and brain health.

Gastrointestinal health
The results of studies generally suggest that people with disorders affecting the stomach and intestines may see improvements with probiotics. For example, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) found that probiotics seem to improve the symptoms of this condition.

General health
The potential benefits of probiotics.

They found that probiotics may decrease:

  • the need for antibiotics
  • school absences from colds
  • the incidence of ventilator-assisted pneumonia
  • gestational diabetes
  • vaginal infections, such as yeast infections
  • eczema

However, the review did not find high-quality evidence that probiotics can prevent illness.

Side effects

People with weakened immune systems were also more vulnerable to side effects. The lack of data regarding safety shows that scientists know little about the risks of probiotics, especially the potential issues of long-term use.

Anyone concerned about the risk of side effects should speak with a doctor before significantly increasing their intake of probiotics. Prebiotics are a component of some foods that the body cannot digest. They serve as food for
bacteria and other beneficial organisms in the gut.

The benefits of prebiotics have links to the benefits of probiotics. Prebiotics may support a healthy gut, offering better digestive health, fewer antibiotic-related health problems, and other benefits.

There is less research on prebiotics than on probiotics.
As a result, the extent to which prebiotics improve health is unclear. Scientists are not yet entirely sure that they can strengthen the purported benefits of probiotics.

Prebiotics may benefit the body by:

  • improving calcium absorption
  • changing how quickly the body can process carbohydrates
  • supporting the probiotic growth of gut bacteria, potentially enhancing digestion and metabolism

Prebiotics occur naturally in many foods, so there is no need for people to take prebiotic supplements.

There is currently no evidence that taking prebiotics and probiotics together is harmful. However, people who have chronic diseases or serious illnesses should avoid probiotic or prebiotic supplements unless a doctor advises otherwise.
Research on the side effects of prebiotics is also in its infancy and requires further investigation.

Prebiotics and probiotics interact:
Prebiotics serve as food for probiotics, so probiotics need access to prebiotics to work effectively.

People who eat a balanced, varied, and healthful diet will get many prebiotics and probiotics through their food:
Probiotic foods

Many foods are rich in probiotics, including:

  • yogurt
  • Potato
  • fermented foods,
  • Curd
  • traditional fermented buttermilk
  • fermented cheeses

Prebiotic Foods
By including a variety of foods in their diet, people can ensure that they consume a range of prebiotics that may fuel various strains of bacteria. Prebiotics are in many high-fiber foods, including some fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.

Some probiotic-rich foods may also contain prebiotics.

Babies get access to prebiotics through the sugars in breast milk, and some infant formulas also contain prebiotics.


For most healthy people, there is no need to take prebiotic or probiotic supplements. However, the risk of doing so is usually minimal for people who do not have weakened immune systems or underlying illnesses.

A diet consisting of a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fermented foods makes it possible for people to consume sufficient prebiotics and probiotics without relying on supplements.

People should consult a doctor or dietitian if they feel that they need specific advice on the right diet for their needs.